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Beaver Literature


Please refer to the individual Workshop Topics for recommended references with respect to specific topic.

Beaver Resource Guide

"Landowner's Guide to Nonlethal Beaver Solutions"

This seven-page publication covers "how to help beavers and benefit from them at the same time." It was produced by the Animal Protection of New Mexico (APNM), and is available through the WildEarth Guardians. This organization is an excellent resource whose mission "protects and restores the wildlife, wild places, wild rivers, and health of the American West," with four programs focusing on wildlife, wild places, wild rivers, and climate and energy.


Beaver Fact Sheet

Beaver Fact Sheet

" An Overview of Beaver Management for Agricultural Producers - Decision Matrix Tool" is produced by the Alberta Riparian Habitat Management Society, also known as "Cows and Fish". This organization is a non-profit society striving to foster a better understanding of how improvements in grazing and other management of riparian areas can enhance landscape health and productivity, for the benefit of landowners, agricultural producers, communities and others who use and value riparian areas.



Books on Beaver

The Beaver: Its Life and Impact. By Dietland Muller-Schwarze

'The Beaver: Its Life and Impact is designed to satisfy the curiosity and answer the questions of anyone with an interest in these animals, from students who enjoy watching beaver ponds at nature centers to homeowners and land managers. Color and black-and-white photographs document every aspect of beaver behavior and biology, the variety of their constructions, and the habitats that depend on their presence.' - Cornell University Press








  • Hood GA. 2011. The Beaver Manifesto. Rocky Mountain Books: Toranto, Canada, 130 pp. - An excellent new book targeted at lay audiences that lays out much of the rationale for partnering with beaver in conservation and restoration efforts.

  • Enos Mills' (1913) 'In Beaver World' is a classic filled with great anecdotal accounts of beaver. You can download a PDF for free form archive.org.





Other Bibliographies

EndNote Database of Beaver Bibliography

This includes PDFs for some (117 not all) of the 500+ references shown below. The EndNote file is in a *.enl format and the PDFs are included in a PDF subfolder (they link automatically from EndNote). If you don't have EndNote, you can still access the PDFs.



Beaver Bibliography

This is an unsorted listing of of over 500 references on beaver.  
  1. Albert, S. and Trimble, T., 2000. Beavers are partners in riparian restoration on the Zuni Indian Reservation. Ecological Restoration, 18(2): 87-92. 
  2. Aleksiuk, M., 1970. The seasonal food regime of arctic beavers. Ecology: 264-270. 
  3. Allen, A., 1983. Habitat suitability index models: Beaver, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Colins, CO.
  4. Allers, D. and Culik, B.M., 1997. Energy requirements of beavers (Castor canadensis) swimming underwater. Physiological Zoology, 70(4): 456-463. 
  5. AlmquistJacobson, H. and Sanger, D., 1995. Holocene climate and vegetation in the Milford drainage basin, Maine, USA, and their implications for human history. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 4(4): 211-222. 
  6. Andersen, D.C. and Shafroth, P.B., 2010. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona. Ecohydrology, 3(3): 325-338. DOI: 10.1002/eco.113.
  7. Andersen, D.C., Shafroth, P.B., Pritekel, C.M. and O’Neill, M.W., 2011. Managed Flood Effects on Beaver Pond Habitat in a Desert Riverine Ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona USA. Wetlands, 31(2): 195-206. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-011-0154-y.
  8. Anderson, C., Griffith, C., Rosemond, A., Rozzi, R. and Dollenz, O., 2006. The effects of invasive North American beavers on riparian plant communities in Cape Horn, ChileDo exotic beavers engineer differently in sub-Antarctic ecosystems? Biological Conservation, 128(4): 467-474. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.011.
  9. Anderson, C.B., Griffith, C.R., Rosemond, A.D., Rozzi, R. and Dollenz, O., 2006. The effects of invasive North American beavers on riparian plant communities in Cape Horn, Chile - Do exotic beavers engineer differently in sub-Antarctic ecosystems? Biological Conservation, 128(4): 467-474. DOI: Doi 10.1016/J.Biocon.2005.10.011.
  10. Anderson, C.B. et al., 2009. Do introduced North American beavers Castor canadensis engineer differently in southern South America? An overview with implications for restoration. Mammal Review, 39(1): 33-52. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1365-2907.2008.00136.X.
  11. Anderson, C.B. and Rosemond, A.D., 2007. Ecosystem engineering by invasive exotic beavers reduces in-stream diversity and enhances ecosystem function in Cape Horn, Chile. Oecologia, 154(1): 141-153. DOI: Doi 10.1007/S00442-007-0757-4.
  12. Anderson, C.B. et al., 2006. Exotic vertebrate fauna in the remote and pristine sub-antarctic Cape Horn Archipelago, Chile. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(10): 3295-3313. DOI: Doi 10.1007/S10531-005-0605-Y.
  13. Anderson, J.T. and Bonner, J.L., 2014. Modelling Habitat Suitability for Beaver (Castor canadensis) Using Geographic Information Systems, 2014 4th International Conference on Future Environment and Energy. IACSIT Press, pp. 12-23.
  14. Anderson, W.I., Schlafer, D.H. and Vesely, K.R., 1989. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma with Pulmonary Metastases in a Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 25(4): 599-600. 
  15. Apple, L. et al., 1985. Riparian habitat restoration and beavers. 
  16. Apple, L., Smith, B., Dunder, J. and Baker, B., 1985. The use of beavers for riparian/aquatic habitat restoration of cold desert, gully-cut stream systems in southwestern Wyoming. Investigations on beavers, 4: 123. 
  17. Arjo, W.M. et al., 2008. Assessment of transmitter models to monitor beaver Castor canadensis and C. fiber populations. Wildlife Biology, 14(3): 309-317. 
  18. Atwater, M.M., 1940. South Fork (Montana) beaver survey. Journal of Wildlife Management, 4: 100-103. 
  19. Aznar, J.C. and Desrochers, A., 2008. Building for the future: Abandoned beaver ponds promote bird diversity. Ecoscience, 15(2): 250-257. DOI: Doi 10.2980/15-2-3107.
  20. Bailey, J.K. et al., 2004. BEAVERS AS MOLECULAR GENETICISTS: A GENETIC BASIS TO THE FORAGING OF AN ECOSYSTEM ENGINEER. Ecology, 85(3): 603-608. DOI: 10.1890/03-3049.
  21. Bailey, J.K. and Whitham, T.G., 2006. Interactions between cottonwood and beavers positively affect sawfly abundance. Ecological Entomology, 31(4): 294-297. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1365-2311.2006.00774.X.
  22. Baker, B.W., 2006. Efficacy of tail-mounted transmitters for beaver. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34(1): 218-222. 
  23. Baker, B.W. and Cade, B.S., 1995. Predicting Biomass of Beaver Food from Willow Stem Diameters. Journal of Range Management, 48(4): 322-326. 
  24. Baker, B.W., Ducharme, H.C., Mitchell, D.C.S., Stanley, T.R. and Peinetti, H.R., 2005. Interaction of beaver and elk herbivory reduces standing crop of willow. Ecological Applications, 15(1): 110-118. 
  25. Baker, B.W. and Hill, E.P., 2003. Beaver (Castor Canadensis). In: G.A. Feldhamer, B.C. Thompson and J.A. Chapman (Editors), Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Mangement and Conservation. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, pp. 288-310.
  26. Baker, B.W., Peinetti, H.R., Coughenour, M.B. and Johnson, T.L., 2012. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem. Ecosphere, 3(11): art95. DOI: 10.1890/ES12-00058.1.
  27. Barnes, D.M., 2005. Possible tool use by Beavers, Castor canadensis, in a northern Ontario watershed. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 119(3): 441-443. 
  28. Barnes, D.M. and Mallik, A.U., 1996. Use of woody plants in construction of beaver dams in northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 74(9): 1781-1786. 
  29. Barnes, D.M. and Mallik, A.U., 1997. Habitat Factors Influencing Beaver Dam Establishment in a Northern Ontario Watershed. The Journal of wildlife management, 61(4): 1371-1377. 
  30. Barnes, D.M. and Mallik, A.U., 2001. Effects of Beaver, Castor canadensis, herbivory on streamside vegetation in a northern Ontario watershed. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 115(1): 9-21. 
  31. Bartel, R.A., Haddad, N.M. and Wright, J.P., 2010. Ecosystem engineers maintain a rare species of butterfly and increase plant diversity. Oikos, 119(5): 883-890. 
  32. Basey, J.M. and Jenkins, S.H., 1995. Influences of predation risk and energy maximization on food selection by beavers (Castor canadensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 73(12): 2197-2208. 
  33. Baskin, L.M. and Novoselova, N.S., 2008. A fear of predators as a factor determining the length of feeding routes in beavers. Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 87(2): 226-230. 
  34. Beck, J.L., Dauwalter, D.C., Gerow, K.G. and Hayward, G.D., 2009. Design to monitor trend in abundance and presence of American beaver (Castor canadensis) at the national forest scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 164(1-4): 463-479. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-009-0907-8.
  35. Beechie, T.J., Pollock, M.M. and Baker, S., 2008. Channel incision, evolution and potential recovery in the Walla Walla and Tucannon River basins, northwestern USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 33(5): 784-800. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1578.
  36. Beechie, T.J., Polock, M.M. and Baker, S., 2007. Channel incision, evolution and potential recovery in the Walla Walla and Tucannon River basins, northwestern USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 33: 784-800. 
  37. Beier, P. and Barrett, R.H., 1987. Beaver habitat use and impact in Truckee River basin, California. The Journal of wildlife management: 794-799. 
  38. Benhamou, S., 1998. Home range in terrestrial mammals. Revue D Ecologie-La Terre Et La Vie, 53(4): 309-335. 
  39. Bertolo, A. and Magnan, P., 2006. Spatial and environmental correlates of fish community structure in Canadian Shield lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63(12): 2780-2792. DOI: Doi 10.1139/F06-161.
  40. Bertolo, A., Magnan, P. and Plante, M., 2008. Linking the occurrence of brook trout with isolation and extinction in small Boreal Shield lakes. Freshwater Biology, 53(2): 304-321. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1365-2427.2007.01895.X.
  41. Bhat, M.G., Huffaker, R.G. and Lenhart, S.M., 1993. Controlling Forest Damage by Dispersive Beaver Populations - Centralized Optimal Management Strategy. Ecological Applications, 3(3): 518-530. 
  42. Bigler, W., Butler, D.R. and Dixon, R.W., 2001. Beaver-pond sequence morphology and sedimentation in northwestern Montana. Physical Geography, 22(6): 531-540. 
  43. Bilyeu, D.M., Cooper, D.J. and Hobbs, N.T., 2008. Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range. Ecological Applications, 18(1): 80-92. 
  44. Bird, B., O’Brien, M. and Peterson., M., 2011. Beaver and Climate Change Adaptation in North America: A Simple, Cost-Effective Strategy for the National Forest System, WildEarth Guardians, Grand Canyon Trust, & The Lands Council.
  45. Bisaillon, A., 1982. Anatomy of the Heart in the North-American Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Anatomischer Anzeiger, 151(4): 381-391. 
  46. Blackwell, B.H. and Pederson, J.C., 1993. Beaver distribution, habitat and population survey, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT.
  47. Bloomquist, C.K. and Nielsen, C.K., 2009. A Remote Videography System for Monitoring Beavers. The Journal of wildlife management, 73(4): 605-608. DOI: 10.2193/2008-200.
  48. Bloomquist, C.K. and Nielsen, C.K., 2010. Demography of Unexploited Beavers in Southern Illinois. The Journal of wildlife management, 74(2): 228-235. DOI: 10.2193/2008-456.
  49. Boudreau, R.E.A., Galloway, J.M., Patterson, R.T., Kumar, A. and Michel, F.A., 2005. A paleolimnological record of Holocene climate and environmental change in the Temagami region, northeastern Ontario. Journal of Paleolimnology, 33(4): 445-461. DOI: Doi 10.1007/S10933-004-7616-7.
  50. Bovet, J., 1994. Missed Opportunities in the Study of Activity and Body-Temperature of Beaver (Castor Canadensis) - Comment. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 72(3): 567-569. 
  51. Bovet, J., 2005. The maleness of male beavers: A response to Margot Francis. Journal of Historical Sociology, 18(1-2): 122-124. 
  52. Boyce, M.S., 1981. Habitat ecology of an unexploited population of beavers in interior Alaska. In: J.A. Chapman and D. Pursley (Editors), Worldwide Furbearer Conf. Proc. Vol. I. , pp. 155-186.
  53. Boyle, S. and Owen, S., 2007. North American Beaver (Castor canadensis): A Technical Conservation Assessment, Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Montrose, CO.
  54. Boyles, S.L. and Savitzky, B.A., 2008. An Analysis of the Efficacy and Comparative Costs of Using Flow Devices to Resolve Conflicts with North American Beavers Along Roadways in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. In: R.M.T.a.M.B. Madon (Editor), Proc. 23rd Vertebr. Pest Conf. UC Davis, Davis, CA, pp. 6.
  55. Braasch, S. and Tanner, G.W., 1989. Riparian zone inventory. Rangelands, 11(3): 103-106. 
  56. Breck, S.W. and Gaynor, J.S., 2003. Comparison of isoflurane and sevoflurane for anesthesia in beaver. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 39(2): 387-392. 
  57. Breck, S.W., Goldstein, M.I. and Pyare, S., 2012. Site-Occupancy Monitoring of an Ecosystem Indicator: Linking Characteristics of Riparian Vegetation to Beaver Occurrence. Western North American Naturalist, 72(4): 432-441. DOI: 10.3398/064.072.0402.
  58. Breck, S.W., Wilson, K.R. and Andersen, D.C., 2001. The demographic response of bank-dwelling beavers to flow regulation: a comparison on the Green and Yampa rivers. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 79(11): 1957-1964. 
  59. Breck, S.W., Wilson, K.R. and Andersen, D.C., 2003. Beaver herbivory and its effect on cottonwood trees: Influence of flooding along matched regulated and unregulated rivers. River Research and Applications, 19(1): 43-58. DOI: Doi 10.1002/Rra.696.
  60. Breck, S.W., Wilson, K.R. and Andersen, D.C., 2003. Beaver herbivory of willow under two flow regimes: A comparative study on the green and Yampa Rivers. Western North American Naturalist, 63(4): 463-471. 
  61. Broschart, M.R., Johnston, C.A. and Naiman, R.J., 1989. Predicting Beaver Colony Density in Boreal Landscapes. Journal of Wildlife Management, 53(4): 929-934. 
  62. Brzyski, J.R. and Schulte, B.A., 2009. Beaver (Castor canadensis) Impacts on Herbaceous and Woody Vegetation in Southeastern Georgia. American Midland Naturalist, 162(1): 74-86. 
  63. Buckley, M., Souhlas, T., Niemi, E., Warren, E. and Reich, S., 2011. The Economic Value of Beaver Ecosystem Services: Escalante River Basin, Utah, ECO Northwest, Eugene, OR.
  64. Buech, R.R., 1984. Ontogeny and Diurnal Cycle of Fecal Reingestion in the North-American Beaver (Castor-Canadensis). Journal of Mammalogy, 65(2): 347-350. 
  65. Buech, R.R., 1985. Beaver in water impoundments: understanding a problem of water-level management, DM Knighton, Comp., Wa ter impoundments for wildlife: A habitat management workshop (General Technical Report NC-100). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, pp. 95-105.
  66. Buech, R.R., 1995. Sex differences in behavior of beavers living in near-boreal lake habitat. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 73(11): 2133-2143. 
  67. Burchsted, D., Daniels, M., Thorson, R. and Vokoun, J., 2010. The River Discontinuum: Applying Beaver Modifications to Baseline Conditions for Restoration of Forested Headwaters. Bioscience, 60(11): 908-922. DOI: 10.1525/bio.2010.60.11.7.
  68. Burdock, G.A., 2007. Safety assessment of castoreum extract as a food ingredient. International Journal of Toxicology, 26(1): 51-55. DOI: Doi 10.1080/10915810601120145.
  69. Busher, P.E., 1996. Food caching behavior of beavers (Castor canadensis): Selection and use of woody species. American Midland Naturalist, 135(2): 343-348. 
  70. Busher, P.E. and Dzie̦ciolowski, R., 1999. Beaver protection, management, and utilization in Europe and North America. Springer.
  71. Butler, D. and Malanson, G., 2005. The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams. Geomorphology, 71(1-2): 48-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.016.
  72. Butler, D.R., 2006. Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems. Geomorphology, 79(3-4): 448-459. 
  73. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., 1994. Beaver Landforms. Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, 38(1): 76-79. DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0064.1994.tb01519.x.
  74. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., 1995. Sedimentation rates and patterns in beaver ponds in a mountain environment. Geomorphology, 13: 255-269. 
  75. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., 1995. Sedimentation-Rates and Patterns in Beaver Ponds in a Mountain Environment. Geomorphology, 13(1-4): 255-269. 
  76. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., 1995. SEDIMENTATION-RATES AND PATTERNS IN BEAVER PONDS IN A MOUNTAIN ENVIRONMENT, pp. 255-269.
  77. Butler, D.R. and Malanson, G.P., 2005. The geomorphic influences of beaver dams and failures of beaver dams. Geomorphology, 71(1-2): 48-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.08.016.
  78. Butts, W.L., 1986. Changes in Local Mosquito Fauna Following Beaver (Castor-Canadensis) Activity. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 2(3): 300-304. 
  79. Butts, W.L., 1992. Changes in Local Mosquito Fauna Following Beaver (Castor, Canadensis) Activity - an Update. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 8(3): 331-332. 
  80. Butts, W.L., 2004. Changes in distribution and abundance of mosquito populations in an ecological research tract over a 35-year period. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 20(3): 319-320. 
  81. Campbell, K.L., McIntyre, I.W. and MacArthur, R.A., 1999. Fasting metabolism and thermoregulatory competence of the star-nosed mole, Condylura cristata (Talpidae : Condylurinae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 123(3): 293-298. 
  82. Case, R.L. and Kauffman, J.B., 1997. Wild ungulate influences on the recovery of willows, black cottonwood, and thin-leafed alder following the cessation of cattle grazing in northeastern Oregon. Northwest Science, 71: 115-126. 
  83. Cavalli, P., 1990. The effects of beaver in forested lands. 
  84. Chandler, R.B., King, D.I. and DeStefano, S., 2009. Scrub-Shrub Bird Habitat Associations at Multiple Spatial Scales in Beaver Meadows in Massachusetts. Auk, 126(1): 186-197. DOI: Doi 10.1525/Auk.2009.08083.
  85. Chavez, A.S. and Gese, E.M., 2005. Food habits of wolves in relation to livestock depredations in northwestern Minnesota. American Midland Naturalist, 154(1): 253-263. 
  86. Chilelli, M.E., Griffith, B. and Harrison, D.J., 1996. Interstate comparisons of river otter harvest data. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 24(2): 238-246. 
  87. Chu, H.J. and Jiang, Z.G., 2009. Distribution and conservation of the Sino-Mongolian beaver Castor fiber birulai in China. Oryx, 43(2): 197-202. DOI: Doi 10.1017/S0030605308002056.
  88. Chubbs, T.E. and Phillips, F.R., 1994. Long-Distance Movement of a Transplanted Beaver, Castor-Canadensis, in Labrador. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 108(3): 366-366. 
  89. Cirmo, C.P. and Driscoll, C.T., 1993. Beaver Pond Biogeochemistry - Acid Neutralizing Capacity Generation in a Headwater Wetland. Wetlands, 13(4): 277-292. 
  90. Cirmo, C.P. and Driscoll, C.T., 1996. The impacts of a watershed CaCO3 treatment on stream and wetland biogeochemistry in the Adirondack Mountains. Biogeochemistry, 32(3): 265-297. 
  91. Clifford, H.F., Wiley, G.M. and Casey, R.J., 1993. Macroinvertebrates of a Beaver-Altered Boreal Stream of Alberta, Canada, with Special Reference to the Fauna on the Dams. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 71(7): 1439-1447. 
  92. Clulow, F.V., Mirka, M.A., Dave, N.K. and Lim, T.P., 1991. Ra-226 and Other Radionuclides in Water, Vegetation, and Tissues of Beavers (Castor-Canadensis) from a Watershed Containing U-Tailings near Elliot Lake, Canada. Environmental Pollution, 69(4): 277-310. 
  93. Cole, C.A., Cirmo, C.P., Wardrop, D.H., Brooks, R.P. and Peterson-Smith, J., 2008. Transferability of an HGM wetland classification scheme to a longitudinal gradient of the central Appalachian Mountains: Initial hydrological results. Wetlands, 28(2): 439-449. 
  94. Collen, P. and Gibson, R.J., 2001. The general ecology of beavers (Castor sp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish - A review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10: 439-461. 
  95. Collen, P. and Gibson, R.J., 2001. The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish - a review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10(4): 439-461. 
  96. Consolati, F.N., Wheaton, J.M., Neilson, B.T., Bouwes, N. and Pollock, M., 2012. The role of beaver in shaping steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat complexity and thermal refugia in a central Oregon stream, Fall Meeting AGU. EOS Transactions, San Francisco, CA.
  97. Cooke, H.A. and Zack, S., 2008. Influence of Beaver Dam Density on Riparian Areas and Riparian Birds in Shrubsteppe of Wyoming. Western North American Naturalist, 68(3): 365-373. 
  98. Corenblit, D., Tabacchi, E., Steiger, J. and Gurnell, A.M., 2007. Reciprocal interactions and adjustments between fluial landforms and vegetation dynamics in river corridors: A review of complementary approaches. Earth-Science Reviews, 84(2007): 56-86. 
  99. Correll, D.L., Jordan, T.E. and Weller, D.E., 2000. Beaver pond biogeochemical effects in the Maryland Coastal Plain. Biogeochemistry, 49(3): 217-239. 
  100. Cowell, D.W., 1984. The Canadian Beaver, Castor-Canadensis, as a Geomorphic Agent in Karst Terrain. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 98(2): 227-230. 
  101. Crawford, J., Liu, Z., Nelson, T., Nielsen, C. and Bloomquist, C., 2008. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the beaver (Castor canadensis). Molecular Ecology Resources, 8(3): 616-618. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1471-8286.2007.02016.X.
  102. Crawford, J.C., Liu, Z., Nelson, T.A., Nielsen, C.K. and Bloomquist, C.K., 2008. A Comparison of Field and Molecular Techniques for Sexing Beavers. Journal of Wildlife Management, 72(8): 1805-1807. DOI: Doi 10.2193/2007-375.
  103. Crawford, J.C., Liu, Z.W., Nelson, T.A., Nielsen, C.K. and Bloomquist, C.K., 2009. Genetic Population Structure within and between Beaver (Castor Canadensis) Populations in Illinois. Journal of Mammalogy, 90(2): 373-379. 
  104. Crawford, J.C., Liu, Z.W., Nelson, T.A., Nielsen, C.K. and Blooniquist, C.K., 2008. Microsatellite analysis of mating and kinship in beavers (Castor canadensis). Journal of Mammalogy, 89(3): 575-581. 
  105. Crouch, G.L., 1968. . Clipping of woody plants by mountain beaver. . Journal of Mammalogy 49(1): 151-152. 
  106. Cullen, C.L., 2003. Normal ocular features, conjunctival microflora and intraocular pressure in the Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 6(4): 279-284. 
  107. Cunningham, J.M., Calhoun, A.J.K. and Glanz, W.E., 2006. Patterns of beaver colonization and wetland change in Acadia National Park. Northeastern Naturalist, 13(4): 583-596. 
  108. Cunningham, J.M., Calhoun, A.J.K. and Glanz, W.E., 2007. Pond-breeding amphibian species richness and habitat selection in a beaver-modified landscape. Journal of Wildlife Management, 71(8): 2517-2526. DOI: Doi 10.2193/2006-510.
  109. Curtis, P.D. and Jensen, P.G., 2004. Habitat features affecting beaver occupancy along roadsides in New York state. Journal of Wildlife Management, 68(2): 278-287. 
  110. Danilov, P., Kan'shiev, V.Y. and Fedorov, F.V., 2008. European (Castor fiber) and Canadian (Castor canadensis) beavers from the Russian North-West. Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 87(3): 348-360. 
  111. DeBano, L.F. and Heede, B.H., 1987. ENHANCEMENT OF RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS WITH CHANNEL STRUCTURES. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 23(3): 463-470. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.1987.tb00824.x.
  112. DeGraaf, R.M. and Yamasaki, M., 2003. Options for managing early-successional forest and shrubland bird habitats in the northeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management, 185(1-2): 179-191. DOI: Doi 10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00254-8.
  113. Demmer, R. and Beschta, R.L., 2008. Recent History (1988-2004) of Beaver Dams along Bridge Creek in Central Oregon. Northwest Science, 82(4): 309-318. DOI: 10.3955/0029-344X-82.4.309.
  114. Denley, A. et al., 2007. Differential activation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 by insulin-like growth factor-activated insulin receptors. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 27(10): 3569-3577. 
  115. Denney, R.N., 1952. A summary of North American beaver management, 1946-1948, 28. Colorado Game and Fish Dept.
  116. DeStefano, S., Koenen, K.K.G., Henner, C.M. and Strules, J., 2006. Transition to independence by subadult beavers (Castor canadensis) in an unexploited, exponentially growing population. Journal of Zoology, 269(4): 434-441. DOI: Doi 10.1111/J.1469-7998.2006.00160.X.
  117. Devito, K.J. and Dillon, P.J., 1993. Importance of Runoff and Winter Anoxia to the P and N Dynamics of a Beaver Pond. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 50(10): 2222-2234. 
  118. DeVries, P., Fetherston, K.L., Vitale, A. and Madsen, S., 2012. Emulating Riverine Landscape Controls of Beaver in Stream Restoration. Fisheries, 37(6): 246-255. DOI: 10.1080/03632415.2012.687263.
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